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Citing Multimedia in Projects and Presentations

The in-text citation process in writing has been very streamlined for a while now with clear styles and expectations coming from the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). Other forms like footnoting have been around for a long time, as well, even though it’s not used as commonly any more. Schools typically require one of these styles to be used in research writing and the style is often assessed as part of the writing process.

Due to the easy access of it now on the Internet, students are being required to use more and more multimedia in their work and class projects. Many of these projects are being created on or being published to the web via wikis, blogs, YouTube, and other Web 2.0 tools. Students need to show clear attribution to any media used in these projects or presentations in the same way they cite text sources in writing, but it isn’t always happening. In the same way consistent styles for text-based research citation and attribution have been created, a consistent way of citing or attributing multimedia is needed. This is also the case for images used during formal presentations given both in-class and to larger communities.

Both MLA and APA provide styles for full source citations that get listed in a final works cited/bibliography list. Either of these formats can still be used on a sources page in a project or end slide of a presentation. But, what about the immediate attribution that appears on or next to the image, video, or in-line audio within a project or presentation? I haven’t seen or heard of a consistent way of doing this, but here are few possibilities.

1. Just use a traditional MLA or APA style parenthetical citation with the creator’s last name/username or title of the work (if no creator name is given). If the media is presented in an online published project, the student (or teacher) could hyperlink the citation to its original location, then have the full source citation at the end of the project. Alternatively, they could provide the full source citation near the image as seen below. This takes up a little more space, but all the attribution information is there immediately for the viewer.

From a project published to a wiki

If it’s a presentation, then just putting the MLA or APA style parenthetical citation on each image or next to an embedded video with the creator’s last name or the title of the image if no creator is given would be the process.

From a formal presentation

2. Another option is to put the full or shortened URL on or next to the media whether it’s a presentation or an online published project. An additional element as you can see in this example is the acknowledgement of the Creative Commons licensed nature of the image, which is important to show that the image is legally reusable.

From a conference presentation

3. A slight expansion on #1 above would be to use a consistent attribution phrase like “Image by [name] on [website]” or “Image from [website]” if a person’s name is not given. This is the style I typically use and guide my students to use.

From an in-class presentation

I prefer this 3rd style since it’s a little cleaner and visually pleasing, especially in presentations. I don’t think any audience member is going to try to get to the image during a presentation. With that in mind, I think using the URL for attribution isn’t necessary in a presentation. In text-based research and writing, only putting a URL in a citation is not accepted in MLA and APA, so I guess I carry this over to the attribution of multimedia, also. A works/images/media cited page can be provided at the end of presentation that shows all detail, then the presenter can email or post online the full source list for any audience member that wants the links to the media.

In the end, as long as there is a consistent method used and required and the media used is Creative Commons licensed, royalty-free, or labeled for legal reuse, then an important digital citizenship skill is being taught. It can even be assessed if desired (see rubric example below). Having students create their own media instead of downloading it is even better as it improves and builds creative tendencies and ways of thinking. In those instances I tell students they don’t have to attribute themselves unless they want.

Responsible Digital CitizenshipStudents advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology The student took great care to ensure all images, video, and other multimedia were original, had a Creative Commons license, and/or labeled for legal reuse. Attribution was given to all of the authors of any artistic element used and all were clearly and correctly cited with Internet-based sources hyperlinked. A complete and correctly formatted works cited was included at the end of the product. The student took care to ensure almost all images, video, and other multimedia were original, had a creative commons license, and/or labeled for legal reuse. Attribution was given to most of the authors of any artistic element used and most were cited with Internet-based sources hyperlinked. A complete and mostly correct works cited was included at the end of the product. The students may have used an image, video, and/or other multimedia that was protected under copyright, but it was cited. Attribution was given to a few of the authors of any artistic element used and/or there were gross errors in citations. Some Internet-based sources were not hyperlinked. A works cited was included, but contained many errors in format. There was blatant infringement of copyright by inserting downloaded images, video, and/or other multimedia from the internet that was not licensed for reuse. No attribution is given. No Internet-based sources are hyperlinked. No works cited is included.

If you have any other approaches or suggestions about this issue, I would love to hear them.

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Rubric Descriptors for Information Literacy/NETS Benchmarks

In the workshop I did on Creative Commons this last weekend at the Learning 2.0 conference in Shanghai, China, a few people inquired about rubrics and descriptors I’ve written for the Digital Citizenship strand of the NETS standards and benchmarks (the use of Creative Commons by students can be assessed through benchmarks in this strand). Being that the class I developed at my school called Technology Skills for the 21st Century Learner is built on most of the NETS standards and benchmarks, I thought I would share all the descriptors here I’ve written for those strands: Creativity and Innovation; Communication and Collaboration; Digital Citizenship, and Technology Operations and Concepts. I also assess the Research and Information Fluency strand a couple of times, but that is done through student reflection, not a rubric. I’ve removed the descriptors from the context of the original project rubrics in order to present them under each NETS standard. Feel free to use any of them and redevelop them for your purposes.

Creativity and Innovation

Standard: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.

Benchmarks with descriptors:

Benchmark

Exemplary

Proficient

Approaching

Concerned

Students apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.

The lesson showed evidence of spontaneous fluency and originality that is recognized by others as high in quality. It is highly apparent the students harnessed the Presentation Zen approach in the design of their lesson. The lesson showed evidence of fluency and originality that are consistently spontaneous. It is apparent the students harnessed the Presentation Zen approach in the design of their lesson. The lesson included some evidence of fluency and originality when prompted by the teacher or another peer. It isn’t always apparent the students harnessed the Presentation Zen approach in the design of their lesson. In the lesson, indications of fluent and original thought or unprompted elaboration is not yet seen. The design of the lesson feels random and mostly uses an old-school, text-based approach.

Students apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.

The look and feel of the portfolio gives a unique sense of both the professional and personal qualities of the student and clearly incorporates design principles. The look and feel of the portfolio gives a sense of both the professional and personal qualities of the student. The look and feel of the portfolio gives a slight sense of the professional and personal qualities of the student. There are few original touches. The look and feel of the portfolio reflects a theme with no personalization and/or it has little or no professional qualities to it.

Students create original works as a means of personal or group expression

The student’s individual contributions to the related activities and final group project shows evidence of spontaneous fluency and originality that is recognized by others as high in quality. The student’s individual contributions to the related activities and final group project shows evidence of fluency and originality that are consistently spontaneous. The student’s individual contributions to the related activities and final group project include some evidence of fluency and originality when prompted by the teacher or another peer. In the student’s individual contributions to the related activities and final group project, indications of fluent and original thought or unprompted elaboration is not yet seen.

Students create original works as a means of personal or group expression

The video shows evidence of spontaneous fluency and originality that is recognized by others as high in quality. The video shows evidence of fluency and originality that are consistently spontaneous. The video includes some evidence of fluency and originality when prompted by the teacher or another peer. In the video, indications of fluent and original thought or unprompted elaboration is not yet seen.

Students create original works as a means of personal or group expression

The header shows evidence of spontaneous fluency and originality that is recognized by others as high in quality. The header shows evidence of fluency and originality that are consistently spontaneous. The header includes some evidence of fluency and originality when prompted by the teacher or another peer. In the header, indications of fluent and original thought or unprompted elaboration is not yet seen.

Students create original works as a means of personal or group expression

Slide design is thoughtful, image-based, engages the audience, and effectively supports the topic of the presentation. Slide design is mostly image-based and supports the topic of the presentation. Slides contain some images, but are mostly text. Some slides feel put together at the last minute. Some support the topic. Slide design is sloppy and/or is almost all text based. Slides feel random and don’t always support the topic.

Students create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

Students create a unique, authentic, and engaging use of the QR code in context of the situation or client’s need. Students create an engaging use of the QR code in context of the situation or client’s need. Students create a use of the QR code in the context of the situation or client’s need, but its use as engaging as it could be. Students create an overly simple or unengaging use of the QR code and/or it’s not set in context of the situation or client’s need.

Communication and Collaboration

Standard: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

Benchmarks with descriptors:

Benchmark

Exemplary

Proficient

Approaching

Concerned

Students communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

The lesson effectively communicated the issue at hand and the necessary concepts. Organization made it easy to follow the flow of ideas for the whole lesson. The results of the end of lesson assessment showed strong understanding of the topic and concepts. The lesson communicated the issue at hand and the necessary concepts. Organization made it easy to follow the flow of ideas for most of the lesson. The results of the end of lesson assessment showed understanding of the topic and concepts. The main ideas and/or concepts of the lesson got lost at times. Organization was apparent, but could have been better to make it easier to follow the flow of ideas. The results of the end of lesson assessment showed limited understanding of the topic and concepts. The main ideas and/or concepts of the lesson were lacking. There was little or no organization. The end of lesson assessment was not completed or the results of it showed no understanding of the topic and concepts.

Students communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

The video effectively communicates the student’s unique qualities as a learner and individual. Organization makes it easy to follow the flow of ideas. The presentation communicates the student’s unique qualities as a learner and individual. Organization makes it easy to follow the flow of ideas for most of the video. The student’s unique qualities as a learner and individual get lost at times in the video. Organization is apparent, but could be better to make it easier to follow the flow of ideas. The student’s unique qualities as a learner and individual are lacking. There is little or no organization.

Students communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

The portfolio and included pages and posts are very well organized, making it easy for any viewer to navigate, find, and understand the desired information. The portfolio and included pages and posts are organized, making it mostly easy for any viewer to navigate, find, and understand the desired information. The portfolio and included pages and posts are partly organized, but it’s not easy for any viewer to navigate, find, and understand the desired information. The portfolio and included pages and posts are not organized, making it difficule for any viewer to navigate, find, and understand the desired information.

Students interact collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others, employing a variety of digital environments and media.

The student purposively and effectively collaborated with his/her project team using a variety of Web 2.0 tools, completing the project work on time. The student was considered a leader in the group and helped others understand the collaborative technologies. The related activities and published work effectively communicate the group project in-line with the conference theme. The student effectively collaborated with his/her project team using a variety of Web 2.0 tools, completing the project work on time. The related activities and published work effectively communicate the group project idea in-line with the conference theme. The student isolated his/herself at times from the project team processes and/or didn’t always use the Web 2.0 tools to collaborate effectively. Work may have submitted the project work late. The related activities or published work create some confusion about the purpose of the idea or is slightly out-of-line with the conference theme. The student isolated his/herself the whole time from the project team processes and/or didn’t use the Web 2.0 tools to collaborate. Project work was submitted late. The related activities and published work create a lot of confusion about the purpose of the idea or isn’t in-line with the conference theme.

Digital Citizenship

Standard: Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

Benchmarks with descriptors:

Benchmark

Exemplary

Proficient

Approaching

Concerned

Students advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology

The students took great care to ensure all images, video, and other multimedia were original and/or had a Creative Commons license. Attribution was given to all of the authors of any artistic element used. The students took care to ensure almost all images, video, and other multimedia were original and/or had a creative commons license. Attribution was given to most of the authors of any artistic element used. The students may have used an image, video, and/or other multimedia that was protected under copyright, but it was edited enough that makes it an adaptation of the original. Attribution was given to a few of the authors of any artistic element used. There was blatant infringement of copyright by inserting downloaded images, video, and/or other multimedia from the internet that was not licensed for reuse. No attribution is given.

Students advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology

The student took great care to ensure all images were original and/or had a Creative Commons license. The student advised and/or assisted others in this process. The student took care to ensure all images were original and/or had a creative commons license. The student may have used an image that was protected under copyright, but it was edited enough that makes it an adaptation of the original. There is blatant infringement of copyright by inserting  downloaded images from the internet.

Students exhibit a positive attitude toward using information and technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.

The student approached the use of the WordPress system with enthusiasm and promoted the tool to others as an effective way to achieve the goal of the SIS portfolio and build the “professional” you. The student approached the use of the WordPress system without complaining and understood how the tool is an effective way to achieve the goal of the SIS portfolio and build the “professional” you. The student approached the use of the WordPress system in a lackadaisical way and didn’t seek to fully understand how the tool is an effective way to achieve the goal of the SIS portfolio. The student approached the use of the WordPress system with a poor attitude and refused to understand how the tool is an effective way to achieve the goal of the SIS portfolio and build the “professional” you.

Technology Operations and Concepts

Standard: Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.

Benchmarks with descriptors:

Benchmark

Exemplary

Proficient

Approaching

Concerned

Students select and use applications effectively and productively

The student used the Web 2.0 tools, camera, and video editing software skillfully and independently. The student used the Web 2.0 tools, camera, and video editing software skillfully with minor assistance. The student had some problems with the Web 2.0 tools, camera, and/or video editing software throughout the process. The student had major problems with the Web 2.0 tools, camera, and/or video editing software.

Students select and use applications effectively and productively

The student used the camera and video editing software skillfully and independently, completing the work on time. The video contained all original video footage. All audio is level and narration is easily heard. The student used the camera and video editing software skillfully with minor assistance, completing the work on time. An effective mix of video and images were used. Audio is mostly level and narration is easily heard. The student had some problems with the camera and/or video editing software throughout the process and may have submitted the work late. Minimal video footage was used. There are a few jumps in volume during the video; narration gets lost at times in background audio. The student had major problems with the camera and/or video editing software, causing the work not to be submitted on time. Video footage was not used. Volume is not leveled making the listening experience annoying. Narration cannot be heard.

Students select and use applications effectively and productively

The student used Photoshop skillfully and independently, completing the work on time. The student used Photoshop skillfully with minor assistance, completing the work on time. The student had some problems with Photoshop throughout the process and may have submitted the work late. The student had major problems with Photoshop, causing the work not to be submitted on time.

Students understand and use technology systems

The students used the presentation, multimedia, and assessment software skillfully and effectively. No technical problems occurred; the students were in control of the technology at all times. The students used the presentation, multimedia, and assessment software skillfully. 1 or 2 small technical problems occurred, but it didn’t hinder the progress of the lesson; the students were mostly in control of the technology at all times. The students’ use of the presentation, multimedia and/or assessment software was weak at times. Technical problems occurred that hindered the progress of the lesson, but the lesson was still completed; the technology controlled the students at times. The students had major problems with the presentation, multimedia and/or assessment software. Technical problems occurred that hindered the completion of the lesson; the technology controlled the students the whole time.

Students understand and use technology systems.

The student clearly understands the functions of the WordPress blog and chose the appropriate functions to support the purpose of the portfolio. The student understands most functions of the WordPress blog and chose appropriate functions to support the purpose of the portfolio. The student understands a few functions of the WordPress blog and may have chosen some functions that don’t support the purpose of the portfolio. The student doesn’t understand functions of the WordPress blog and may chose many functions that don’t support the purpose of the portfolio.

Students understand and use technology systems.

 

Slide transition is done smoothly and works without glitches. The student is in control of the technology. Slide transition is mostly smooth. One or two problems may have occurred. Problems occurred often that interfere with the smoothness of presentation. The presentation is plagued with technical and/or transition problems. The technology is controlling the student.

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